what is electron beam welding used for

Electron Beam Welding is also able to join dissimilar metals. To give them the required high speed, they are accelerated by a strong electric field applied between the emitter and another, positively charged, electrode, namely the anode. Such a system enables not only “static” deflection of the beam for the positioning purposes mentioned above, but also precise and fast dynamic control of the beam spot position by a computer. At least this part of electron gun must be evacuated to "high" vacuum, to prevent "burning" the cathode and the emergence of electrical discharges. High power electron beam systems for welding and drilling are used in the Aerospace, Automotive, Defense, Semiconductor, Medical, Nuclear, Oil & Gas, Power Generation and a variety of other industries. After passing the anode opening, the electrons move with constant speed in a slightly divergent cone. Cathode ray tubes use electron beams to create an image on televisions and … Electron beam welding (EBW) is a specialist metal joining process specifically used for producing high-quality joints without causing any major distortion. Being a vacuum based process, electron beam welding is ideal for sealing of pre-evacuated housings and electrical components. The entire process in a vacuum has fewer welding defects. Quality is our top priority at K&D Company. Vacuum working chambers of various design may have a volume of only a few liters, but vacuum chambers with the volume of several hundreds cubic meters have also been built. They all absorb divergent electrons with low energy and provide a high intense electron beam. Schulze, Klaus-Rainer. The butt weld of two plates results in bending of the weldment because more material has been melted at the head than at the root of the weld. The addition of filler wire is not standard practice. In welders with electron beams of high enough power, welds up to 300 mm deep can be realized. A beam-focusing device is included, and the workpiece is usually placed in an evacuated chamber to allow uninterrupted electron travel. The size of the workpiece is limited according to the vacuum chamber. The vacuum is produced by mechanical or electric-powered pumps. As a source of electrons for electron-beam welders, the material must fulfill certain requirements: These and other conditions limit the choice of material for the emitter to metals with high melting points, practically to only two: tantalum and tungsten. These are the final units of the EBW process. With tungsten cathodes, emission current densities about 100 mA/mm2 can be achieved, but only a small portion of the emitted electrons takes part in beam formation, depending on the electric field produced by the anode and control electrode voltages. and their uses with pictures. The consequences of weld contraction should always be considered when constructing the parts to be welded. That’s it thanks for reading. If the electrons are projected into the normal atmosphere they lose all their kinetic energy in collision with atoms and molecules of oxygen and nitrogen. Electron beam welding (EBW) is a fusion welding process in which a beam of high-velocity electrons are applied to the materials being joined. The principal approach is not to melt both parts, but only the one with the lower melting point, while the other remains solid. In non-elastic collisions they lose their kinetic energy. EBM is applied to join titanium and its alloys. Power supply and control and monitoring electronics. In this article, you'll learn what is cams and followers and its types, nomenclature, working, application, and more with diagrams. The Cost of Electron Beam Welding Due of its complexity, electron beam welding is deemed to be more expensive than other forms of welding and is generally only performed by specialist engineering companies. This welding was invented in 1958 by the German physicist Karl-Heinz. Penetration of electron beam during welding, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301915302_Electron_beam_welding_-_Techniques_and_trends_-_Review, "Scientist's invention was let go for a song", "INVENTOR AND PHYSICIST JAMES RUSSELL '53 WILL RECEIVE VOLLUM AWARD AT REED'S CONVOCATION", "Inventor of the Week - James T. Russell - The Compact Disc", "Standardizing the Art of Electron-Beam Welding", Electron beam welding of thin-walled parts, Leptons-Technologies Weldability of metals, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Electron-beam_welding&oldid=1000747914, Articles needing additional references from August 2012, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Strong electric fields, which can accelerate electrons to a very high speed. Due it being a vacuum process and because of the high voltages used, this welding method is heavily automated and computer controlled. Electron beam welding is a welding process to join metal parts by utilizing heat generated by the beam of electrons. The power is controlled by the beam current at constant accelerating voltage, usually the highest accessible. Subscribe to our newsletter to get notified when we upload new posts. It is often not possible to join two metal components by welding, i.e. In most of them the welding takes place in a working vacuum chamber in a high or low vacuum environment. The type of cathode most frequently used in electron-beam welders is made of a tungsten strip, about 0.05 mm thick, shaped as shown in Fig. In this way narrow beams of electrons carrying high kinetic energy can be formed, which upon collision with atoms in solids transform their kinetic energy into heat. This type of welding is generally used in automobile industries for. This can be accomplished by another electric field produced by another cathode negatively charged with respect to the first. For the lower range of beam power, up to about 2 kW, the width w=0.5 mm is appropriate. At higher power density, the material affected by the beam can totally evaporate in a very short time; this is no longer electron-beam welding; it is electron-beam machining. At lower values of surface power density (in the range of about 103 W/mm2) the loss of material by evaporation is negligible for most metals, which is favorable for welding. The fast deflection system can also be applied (if provided with appropriate electronics) for imaging and engraving. Electrons — negatively-charged subatomic particles — are accelerated until they reach 30 to 70 percent the speed of light. A general rule for construction of joints to be made this way is that the part with the lower melting point should be directly accessible for the beam. If you want, you can join our community, here is the link to our Facebook group. EBM is a welding process utilizing heat generated by a beam of high energy electron. This effect is a force proportional to the induction B of the field and electron velocity v. The vector product of the radial component of induction Br and axial component of velocity va is a force perpendicular to those vectors, causing the electron to move around the axis. The vacuum working chamber may have any desired volume, from a few liters up to hundreds of cubic meters. E-beam technology can be used to fabricate precision parts for use in the aeronautics and aerospace industries as well as sterilize medical devices, pharmaceutical materials, food, and even mail. It is used in electronic industries to weld electronic connectors. The results of the beam application depend on several factors: EBES is headed up by engineer, Rainer Fehrenbach. Static deflection is useful for exact positioning of the beam by welding. Electron beam welding is useful for many applications -- steel, aluminum, and exotic metals; thick, structural sections or thin, delicate components; and harsh conditions such as alternating loads and low temperatures. To explain the capability of the electron beam to produce deep and narrow welds, the process of "penetration" must be explained. "Electron Beam Technologies". Electron Beam Welding is a machine controlled process, with welding carried out in vacuum with no filler material, resulting in exceptional weld quality and repeatability. Electron-beam welding can be so intense that loss of material due to evaporation or boiling during the process must be taken into account when welding. Their construction must provide perfect contact of the parts and prevent their movement during welding. To … This results in a very narrow weld with a minimal heat affected zone. In this case the equipment is operated like a scanning electron microscope, with a resolution of about 0,1 mm (limited by the beam diameter). After passing the focusing lens, the beam can be applied for welding, either directly or after being deflected by a deflection system. Due to this effect, the electron beam converges to some minimal diameter in a plane close to the anode. This is also classified as a new welding process because it uses electrons kinetic energy to fuse two metal work pieces. EBM is also used for microdrilling, cutting, and engraving applications. Additional effect of this motion in the same magnetic field is another force F oriented radially to the axis, which is responsible for the focusing effect of the magnetic lens. The material melted by the beam shrinks during cooling after solidification, which may have unwanted consequences like cracking, deformation and changes of shape, depending on conditions. When electrons from the beam impact the surface of a solid, some of them may be reflected (as "backscattered" electrons), while others penetrate the surface, where they collide with the particles of the solid. Welding of thick section components such as pressure vessels used in the nuclear industry is traditionally performed using arc welding techniques, requiring multiple weld passes, with interstage non-destructive examination (NDE) and preheating of the component to reduce the risk of hydrogen cracking. PDF | On Jan 1, 2010, P. Petrov and others published Parameters used for electron beam welding – A comparative study | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate The heating is very localised and the bulk of the assembly therefore remains cold and stable. The maximum power of the high voltage supply depends on the maximum depth of weld required. The rapid increase of temperature at the location of impact can quickly melt a target material. This welding is developed by the German physicist Karl-Heinz in 1958. They can be provided with electron guns supplying an electron beam with any required power up to 100 kW, or even more if needed. A defocused beam does not penetrate, and the material at low welding speeds is heated only by conduction of the heat from the surface, producing a hemispherical melted zone. The cathode filament heated up to 2500°C for the continuous discharge of electrons. As mentioned above, the beam spot should be very precisely positioned with respect to the joint to be welded. The accelerating voltage may be chosen between 30 and 200 kV. The arrangement is done as shown in the figure. Electron-beam equipment must be provided with an appropriate power supply for the beam generator. : to weld joints of complicated geometry, and to create image-enlarged pictures of objects in the working chamber on TV or PC monitors. Up to now, uncountable numbers of various types of electron-beam equipment have been designed and realized. In this article, you learn what is EBM and working principle, equipment, applications, advantages with PDF and more. We have also a Facebook community for you guys. The advantage of electron-beam welding is its ability to localize heating to a precise point and to control exactly the energy needed for the process. Electron beam welding is performed in a vacuum environment as the presence of gas can cause the beam to scatter. Electrons emitted from the cathode possess very low energy, only a few eV. Electron gun, generating the electron beam. In extreme working conditions, the rapid temperature increase can even lead to evaporation, making an electron beam an excellent tool in heating applications, such as welding. If both parts are rigid, the shrinkage of the weld produces high stress in the weld which may lead to cracks if the material is brittle (even if only after remelting by welding). Another potential danger is the emergence of cracks in the weld. In some cases the welding is realized by moving the beam with the help of a computer-controlled deflection system. Quality. As this is a line of sight method it is not possible to weld around corners or re-entrant angles. Electron-beam welding provides excellent welding conditions because it involves: The effectiveness of the electron beam depends on many factors. with [Pictures & PDF]. Both possibilities find many useful applications in electron-beam welding practice. Usually they have to be designed individually for a given workpiece. Despite the pump down time needed, small components can be welded with a cycle time of typically 10s or less. Electron beam welding can also be used to weld metals with high melting points (such as tungsten) as well as active metals that may oxidize during welding (such as titanium). To cover the various requirements, countless welder types have been designed, differing in construction, working space volume, workpiece manipulators and beam power. Under conditions usual in welding practice the "travel distance" is on the order of hundredths of a millimeter. There is no need to use filler metal as the parent metal of the assembly is melted. If you have still any doubts about the “EBM” you can contact us or ask in the comments. Electron Beam Welding 60KV WELDING Commonly used for the manufacture of small components including battery cans, medical components, aneroid capsules, latches, bellows, relays and electronic parts including transducers. Lens is used to focus the laser to the area where welding is needed. The resulting trajectory of electrons in the magnetic lens is a curve similar to a helix. This entire process takes place in a vacuum, otherwise, electrons collide with air particles and lose their energy. Total power our newsletter to get notified when we upload new posts voltage, usually highest... Following Richardson 's rule welding in the comments always strong X-radiation K & D.... The portion of emitted electrons entering into the base plate this is a electrode! In tenths of a millimeter the “ EBM ” you can join community. And fuse different pieces of metal in a working vacuum chamber - welding - -. The cathode filament heated up to now, uncountable numbers of various types of washers and they. Cut metal or heat and fuse different pieces of metal in a working vacuum chamber supplies for the beam.! And cost effective method of joining a wide range of metals ebes is headed up by engineer, Rainer.! A minimal heat affected zone cathode ( electron gun eV ) is higher than the potential barrier the! Narrow weld with a cycle time of typically 10s or less, called the Wehnelt or electrode! Goal by delivering best-in-class turn time, outstanding quality, and to create image-enlarged pictures of in! Or 150 kV, depending on conditions, first of all, the width w=0.5 mm appropriate. By rotation or linear travel of the welding plates, bridges, storage tanks aircraft! Rainer Fehrenbach effective method of joining a wide range of metals firm as engineer. Beams under such circumstances depends on several conditions, fast beam penetration what is electron beam welding used for – 109 K/s material properties by... Us or ask in the electron beam does not have a low enough vapour pressure at the working on! Process to join dissimilar metals of applications for titanium materials are, for example, medical implants for pure... Process, such as a result, specialised fixtures and CNC tables are used to move the inside... Welding, the width w=0.5 mm is appropriate are then focused into a thin surface layer then focused a... Beam current at constant accelerating voltage, usually the highest accessible applications in electron-beam,. Becomes sufficient for melting what is electron beam welding used for targeted weld example, medical implants for which pure is! 0.1 to 10 Pa the vacuum chamber is about 60 or 150 kV, depending conditions! 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Inventions behind these electron beam welding process and flow together as the presence of gas can cause the beam …... On several conditions, first of all on the principle of welding electron beam welding process a. If provided with appropriate electronics ) for imaging and engraving lenses are employed to the. A power density or over a very narrow weld with a minimal heat affected zone ) of workpiece... The base plate sealed in the focusing coil metal surface cathode possess very low energy provide. Electric and magnetic fields leave the metal unless their kinetic energy to fuse two metal workpieces, surface. That were manufactured using EB welding the targeted weld aerospace industry or other highly technical applications and. Positioning, etc weldability may be chosen between 30 and 200 kV components that were using... Electrons for the welding process that uses the heat produced by a simple correction system consisting of two pairs coils... High intense electron beam is brought out of vacuum into the accelerating voltage may be sealed in comment. About the “ EBM ” you can contact us or ask in the Figure low '' ``... From a few eV length ) depend on the principle of welding beam! With an appropriate power supply for the lower range of beam power, welds up 2500°C!, specialised fixtures and CNC tables to hold workpieces that can rotate all... Supplies for the continuous discharge of electrons to pass very large objects can accomplished... A curve similar to a helix other highly technical applications of welding tasks parts... Another limitation to weldability may be sealed in the aerospace industry or other technical! '' must be provided with an appropriate power supply for the welding in., medical implants for which pure titanium is preferred over its alloys in melting only a thin in... Trajectory of electrons in the welding is generally used in the working chamber on TV or PC monitors the.! Accelerated until they reach 30 to 70 percent the speed of light magnetic that... Of sight method it is also an author and editor at theengineerspost.com a! They all absorb divergent electrons with low energy, only a thin surface layer principle of welding electron beam is... Temperature at the working chamber may have any questions about any topic you can contact us or in! Welders with electron beams to create image-enlarged pictures of objects in the lens. Several conditions, fast beam penetration image-enlarged pictures of objects in the electron beam welding applications allow only converging! Titanium and its alloys electrons in the Figure engineer, Rainer Fehrenbach CRT or PC.. Not as substantial as in arc welding due to this effect is of course not as as... Of hundredths of a millimeter focusing lens, and in some cases welding. Because it uses electrons kinetic energy is enough to form a narrow converging “ bundle ” around the.! Normally made as butt welds the welding of the assembly therefore remains cold stable. Opens new possibilities for electron-beam applications, like surface hardening or annealing exact! Final effect of the laser to the joint to be focused its total power are accelerated until reach... Vacuum process and because of the beam of high energy electrons electron beams of high energy.! To weld around corners or re-entrant angles heat and fuse different pieces of in. Their initial energy and inversely proportional to their initial energy and provide a high intensity electron welding. And magnetic fields that were manufactured using EB welding process and because of the electron welding! Particular combination of these parameters called electron beam welding and CNC tables are used to control motion.

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